ICP-AES basic principle
Inductively coupled plasma (Inductively Coupled Plasma, ICP) generally refers to the ionization of more than 0.1% ionized gas, this gas contains not only neutral atoms and molecules, but also contains a large number of electrons and ions, and the concentration of electrons and positive ions In a balanced state, it is neutral as a whole.
Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer, the use of plasma excitation light source (ICP) to evaporate the sample evaporation, dissociation or decomposition into atomic state, the atom can be further ionized into ion state, atoms and ions in the light source to emit light. The light emitted by the light source is decomposed into spectra arranged according to the wavelength by using a spectroscopic system. Then the spectrum is detected by the photoelectric device, the sample is qualitatively analyzed according to the measured spectral wavelength, and quantitative analysis is performed according to the intensity of the emitted light.
Plasma torch is composed of a three-tier concentric quartz glass tube (also made of other materials). Pass the cooling gas Ar into the outer tube to prevent the plasma torch from burning the quartz tube. Middle quartz tube outlet made trumpet shape, access to Ar to maintain the plasma. The inner quartz tube has an inner diameter of 1-2 mm and the sample aerosol is introduced into the plasma from the inner tube by a carrier gas (typically Ar). The use of the monatomic inert gas Ar lies in the fact that it is stable in nature and does not form a hardly dissociative compound with the sample and that its own spectrum is simple.
ICP-AES instrument classification
At present, the market of ICP-AES mainly sequential scanning and full-spectrum direct reading, and another individual multi-channel. Sequential Scanning ICP-AES provides the flexibility to select lines and scan spectra for great price and flexibility. In theory, it can be used for the analysis of all the elements of the spectrum, suitable for the analysis of complex and varied matrix and non-standard samples, and is more suitable for the personnel who do instrumental analysis and research work. Of course, it also has a relatively long analysis time, Ar dosage, poor accuracy, non-simultaneous internal weaknesses.
Full-spectrum direct-reading ICP-AES is mainly used in the two-dimensional dispersion system of mid-level grating and prism dispersion system + area array detector, there are also using special holographic grating and linear array solid-state detector to achieve full-spectrum direct reading purposes ICP- AES. The benefits of full-spectrum direct-reading ICP-AES are simultaneous or full-spectrum simultaneous measurement, simultaneous measurement of peak and background, and spectral storage.
Multi-channel ICP spectrometer with concave grating and multiple photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) as detector can be used for simultaneous multi-element analysis. At present, there are still many production lines, but the volume is very small.
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