Conductivity meter, conductivity meter, salinity meter
Conductivity meter, conductivity meter, salinity meter 
Conductivity Meter, Conductivity Meter, Salinity Meter Conductivity Meter is a medical multi-effect distilled water system, boiler bottom water, condensate, heat exchange systems, industrial thermal cleaning of industrial parts, industrial circulating water and so on A wide temperature range of on-line water quality analyzers developed by high-end water quality management and automated control of high temperature environments.
Conductivity Meter is a multi-range instrument that can meet a variety of applications from deionized water to seawater testing requirements. The instrument provides automatic temperature compensation and temperature coefficient setting, so it can be used to measure liquid samples with temperature coefficients different from water. It offers three ranges and has a range of automatic selection function that automatically selects the most suitable range for detection.

working principle
Conductivity refers to the ability of a solution to conduct current in digital form. Water conductivity and inorganic acids, alkalis, salts contained in a certain amount of relationship, when their concentration is low, the conductivity increases with increasing concentration, therefore, this indicator is commonly used to infer the total ion in water Concentration or salt content.
Water hardness unit conversion 
Hardness Unit ppm German Hardness French Hardness British Hardness 
1 ppm = 1.000 ppm 0.0560 0.1 0.0702 
1 German hardness = 17.847 ppm 1 1.7847 1.2521 
1 French hardness = 10.000ppm 0.5603 1 0.7015 
1 UK Hardness = 14.286 ppm 0.7987 1.4285 1 
Conductivity and water hardness 
The conductivity of aqueous solution directly and dissolved solids concentration is proportional to, and the higher the solid concentration, the greater the conductivity. The relationship between conductivity and dissolved solids concentration is approximately expressed as: 1.4μS / cm = 1ppm or 2μS / cm = 1ppm (per million units of CaCO3). The total hardness value of water can be indirectly obtained by using a conductivity meter or a total solid dissolver, as described above, for approximate conversion convenience, 1 μs / cm conductivity = 0.5 ppm hardness [1] 
But need to pay attention: 
(1) indirectly measure the hardness of water with conductivity, the theoretical error of about 20-30ppm 
(2) the conductivity of the solution determines the molecular motion, the temperature affects the molecular motion, in order to compare the measurement results, the test temperature is generally set at 20 ℃ or 25 ℃ 
(3) using reagent detection can obtain more accurate water hardness value. 
Soft and hard water 
Water for the soft water, hard water, where do not contain or contain a small amount of calcium and magnesium ions of water called soft water, otherwise known as hard water. Hardness of water ingredients, if it is caused by sodium bicarbonate or magnesium bicarbonate, Department of temporary hard water (boil temporary hard water, sodium bicarbonate decomposition, the formation of insoluble carbonate and precipitation, the water from hard to soft water) ; If it is caused by calcium or magnesium sulfate or chloride, permanent hard water. According to the total hardness of water roughly divided, the total hardness 0-30ppm known as soft water, the total hardness of 60ppm or more as hard water, high-quality drinking water does not exceed 25ppm, high-quality soft water total hardness of 10ppm or less. In natural water, away from the urban uncontaminated rainwater, snow water is soft water; springs, streams, rivers, reservoirs, mostly temporary hard water, some groundwater is high hardness water. 
Conversion of common units on the conversion of water hardness are: 
1 mmol / L (1 / 2Ca2 +, 1 / 2Mg2 +) = 50 ppm (calculated as CaC03) 
1 mmol / L (1 / 2Ca2 +, 1 / 2Mg2 +) = 2.92grain / gallon 
lgrain / gallon = 17.1 ppm (based on CaC03) 
1m3 = 264gallon (US) = 22O ganon (UK) 
lkg = 2.2pounds (pound sterling) 
1 ppm = 1 mg / L 
TDS (total dissolved solids) is used to measure the total amount of all ions in the water, usually expressed in ppm.
In pure water manufacturing, conductivity can also be used to indirectly represent TDS. 
The conductivity of the solution equals the sum of the various ionic conductivities in the solution. 
The empirical formula is: the micro-Siemens units of the conductivity of about half of the equivalent of TDS (ppm)
Sometimes TDS also used other salts, such as CaCO3 (coefficient is 0.66) 
The conversion factor for TDS and conductivity can be adjusted from 0.4 to 1.0 to accommodate different electrolyte solutions. 
Conductivity is the ability of a substance to deliver current, as opposed to its resistance, in Siemens / cm. 
Water hardness 
The hardness of water refers to the concentration of calcium and magnesium ions in water. The unit of hardness is ppm, and the 1ppm represents 1 mg / L of calcium carbonate in water. 
Conductance (G) is the inverse of the resistance (R). Therefore, when two electrodes (usually platinum electrodes or platinum black electrodes) are inserted into the solution, the resistance R between the two electrodes can be measured. According to Ohm's law, when the temperature is fixed, the resistance value is proportional to the electrode spacing L (cm) and inversely proportional to the electrode cross-sectional area A (cm2), that is, R = ρ × (L / A) 1cm, cross-sectional area of ​​1cm2 conductor resistance, its size depends on the nature of the material. 
According to the above equation, the conductance (G) of the conductor can be expressed as follows: G = 1 / R = 1 / ρ × A / L = K × 1 / J; Is the conductivity, J = L / A is called the electrode constant; electrolyte solution conductivity refers to the conductance of the 1cm3 solution between two parallel electrodes spaced 1cm apart. As can be seen from the above equation, when the electrode constant (J) is known and the solution resistance (R) or conductance (G) is measured, the conductivity can be found.
Advantages and disadvantages
Pen-shaped conductivity meter, generally made of a single range, the measurement range of narrow, for simple and convenient instruments. Pen also made TDS meter, used to measure the quality of drinking water, salinity measurement of salt (solution) salinity and so on. [1]  
Portable and laboratory conductivity meter measuring a wide range of commonly used instruments, the difference is that the portable DC power supply can be brought to the scene. Laboratory conductivity meter measurement range, multi-function, high accuracy. 
Industrial conductivity meter is characterized by good stability, reliable work, a certain degree of measurement accuracy, environmental adaptability, anti-interference ability, with analog output, digital communications, the upper and lower limits alarm and control functions.
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